Medicine is the science and art that focuses on research and application of methods and techniques for the Prevention, Diagnosis and Treatment of Diseases.
Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
Biochemistry of Biological Chemistry is an interdisciplinary field – link between Chemistry and Biology. It is the study of the chemical processes taking place in the human body.
The term Bioaccumulation indicates a phenomenon during which the accumulation of non-metabolized chemical substances is increased in the body in as we move further up in the food chain. Above a critical level of concentration these substances become toxic. This phenomenon is of particular significance for humans, who are usually at the upper consuming level.
According to Biology, the basic structure and functional unit expressing the phenomenon of life is called cell. Thus, a cell is considered as the smallest structural component of living matter, consisting of a systematically organized group of dynamically interacting molecules.
Vitamins are organic compounds that are essential for normal growth and maintenance of a living organism, which is unable to synthesize them. They are found in foods and their beneficial effect begins even when just a small quantity of them is present. Vitamins are metabolic regulators and catalysts of the organism’s biochemical reactions and energy conversions. Vitamins have no calories. However, when they are not present in the body, it is not possible to burn the fat.
Amino acids are the basic structural compounds for the formation of proteins (protein synthesis) and vice versa and they are the end products of protein digestion. More than 500 different amino acids have been identified in nature, but only 20 of them are essential for human metabolism and growth. The liver can produce some of them. The rest, which are also called essential amino acids, should be supplied to the organism through food.
Hormones are specific chemical substances, which are produced by certain specific glands of the body, the endocrine glands.
After their secretion, hormones are transferred through blood circulation to tissues, and organs showing specificity to them, i.e. have the appropriate specific receptors for each corresponding hormone, which is where they exert their regulatory effect on the activity of specific cells.
Hormones are actually like “keys”. Each “key” opens a particular “lock”, i.e. a hormone binds to a specific hormone receptor, and thus it begins to exert its action.
Hormones are involved in the process of signaling from one cell to another.
They interact with target – cells through special receptor – hormone binding mechanisms.
Receptors may be located at the cytoplasmic membrane or within the cell (cytoplasmic or nuclear).
The interactions of hormones with their corresponding receptors can also produce second messengers, thus regulating gene expression.
Hormones are actually regulating all functions of the human body.
Their presence or absence influences metabolism, the appearance of an individual, behavior, sleep, temperature, mood, reproduction, growth, survival, and the evolution of our species.
The trigger for the secretion of a hormone may be a measured parameter (e.g. blood sugar) or another hormonal or neural stimulus.
In each hormone, hormonal secretion is regulated both by negative and by positive feedback mechanisms.
Minerals and trace elements
Elements in the human body
Trace elements and minerals are essential elements for the organism to function properly.
In nature, there are 25 minerals, which are essential for the proper functioning of the human organism.
They are also called inorganic elements, and they are classified into two categories:
1. Macroelements (calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, potassium, sodium, chlorine, sulfur, etc.)
2. Trace elements (iron, copper, zinc, chromium, selenium, etc.)
Classification in one of the above categories depends on the quantity that humans should consume on a daily basis. Larger quantities of macroelements are required as compared to trace elements, something that doesn’t imply that trace elements are less important.
People can get all essential nutrients through a balanced diet.
Trace elements are found in small quantities in various foods, such as meat, fish, cereals, dairy products, vegetables, and nuts.
Iodine and fluorine are among trace elements.
Minerals are used as components of organic compounds in the body, and they are essential for three main reasons:
- Development of strong bones and teeth
- Fluid balance regulation inside and out of the cells
- Conversion of food to energy
Minerals are found in foods such as meat, cereals (including bread), fish, dairy products, vegetables, fruits (mainly dried) and nuts, in general. The main essential minerals and trace elements are: potassium, sodium, calcium, iron, magnesium, phosphorus, chlorine, fluorine, sulfur, iodine, zinc, chromium, manganese, selenium, cobalt, silicon and copper.
Biomimetic Hormones – Bio-identical Hormones
Bioidentical or Biomimetic hormones are produced in the laboratory, and they have the same molecular structure as the hormones produced by our organism.
It is Natural Hormone Replacement.
To the contrary, synthetic hormones are deliberately different.
Pharmaceutical companies cannot patent a biomimetic (bioidentical) structure as they do with synthetic hormones.
Their origin does not indicate that they were found in the form used in nature, but that their pharmaceutical processing, their composition, is made of natural fruits, i.e. yam and soy.
The natural hormone Diosgenin is included, which is converted to the individual bio-identical hormones.
Biomimetic (Bioidentical) estrogens are 17 beta-estradiol, estrone, and estriol.
Estradiol is the estrogen that sharply during menopause.
Biomimetic (Bioidentical) progesterone is simply normal, pure progesterone. It is finely ground in the laboratory to improve its absorption by the organism.
The action of biomimetic (bioidentical) hormones in our body is exactly the same as the hormones we produce.
Using the right doses of biomimetic hormones and in combination with a diet that is “hormonally smart” with vitamins and trace elements, it is possible to maintain our heath and youth for a long time.
Proteins are the most well-known and multidimensional macromolecules in nature, both in terms of their form and in terms of their function.
Hundreds of different proteins are found even in the simple cells of bacteria, each of which has its special role.
Proteins are either structural components of cell membranes, or they contribute in a certain function, such as the production of protein complexes (peptides).
These are big complex biomolecules of high molecular weight, consisting of amino acids, which are joined by peptide bonds and form a linear chain, which is called polypeptide chain.
All proteins contain carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen, while most of them also contain sulfur.
The sequence of amino acids in a protein, i.e. the order in which amino acids bind to each other to create a protein, is determined by a gene and it is encoded by the genetic code DNA.
Despite the fact that our genetic code encodes twenty amino acids, the amino acids that form a protein often go through chemical modifications during their post-translational modification, before protein can function either in the cell or as part of the control mechanisms.
Proteins are produced from ribosomes that are located in the cytoplasm, and initially they appear as simple unbranched amino acid sequences, i.e., peptides or polypeptides forming the “primary structure”, important factors for which are the nucleic acids (DNA and RNA); these are said to control all functions and hereditary traits of organisms.
Following this, polypeptides “twist” and acquire secondary, tertiary and quaternary structure, such as hemoglobin.
Proteins may be fibrous or globular, simple or conjugated, structural or functional.
They are essential for all animal organisms, and they are involved in each process within the cells.
Many proteins also act like enzymes, catalyzing essential for the metabolism biochemical reactions.
Others maintain their cellular structure and cytoskeleton.
Finally, proteins are important for intercellular communication, our Immune system’s action, the formation of all cellular tissues, and in cellular life cycle.
Carbohydrates are a group of organic substances; chemically, they are actually hydrated carbons.
They are also called sugars or glucides, from simpler monosaccharides, such as glucose, fructose, and galactose, to more complex polysaccharides, such as starch, glycogen, and cellulose.
It is one of the three macronutrients in the diet of all living organisms (fats and proteins are the other two), supplying them with the energy required for survival.
They take various forms, and we usually find carbohydrates in starchy foods, such as bread, pasta, and rice, as well as in certain beverages, such as fruit juices and sugar drinks.
Autotrophic organisms produce carbohydrate and oxygen only with the aid of sunlight during the photosynthesis process, from carbon dioxide and water.
Heterotrophic organisms though, such as human beings, cannot photosynthesize neither store effectively the received energy in the form of carbohydrates.
Most carbohydrates are attracted by water molecules, something that makes the storage of many carbohydrates difficult, due to the large molecular weight of complex dissolved in water carbohydrates.
On the other hand, fatty acids (fat) that are hydrophobic are more effective for energy saving, unlike the hydrophilic nature of carbohydrates.
This is why, in most animal organisms, extra carbohydrates, i.e. those that are not immediately useful, are converted to body fat.
Carbohydrates consumed by humans through food are converted to glucose, which forms glycogen molecules.
Furthermore, humans do not have the suitable enzymes to directly synthesize glucose through stored body fat.
Glucose release in the blood allows glycogen to function as a temporary reserve of energy, to cover immediate needs in glucose.
However, energy reserves in glycogen are in less concentrated form than energy reserves in triglycerides.
The organism balances sugars increase in the blood, with subsequent insulin secretion from the pancreas.
Carbohydrates represent the main source of energy for the organism and they are vital for a varied and balanced diet.
Nevertheless, there are both “good” or complex, and “bad” or simple carbohydrates.
We actually want the first group, i.e. black rice and whole-grain pasta, fruits, and vegetables.
We do not want the second group, i.e. white sugar, soft drinks, white rice, white flour and pasta.
In Organic Chemistry, Biochemistry and Chemistry, fats are organic compounds (esters) of a trivalent alcohol, glycerin, with organic acids (mainly saturated or unsaturated monocarboxylic acids).
Depending on their state under normal conditions (room conditions), when they are liquid they are called oils, while when they are solid they are called tallows or simply fats.
Fats are encountered in the animal kingdom as triglycerides or other fatty acids.
In humans, our adipose tissue is a loose connective tissue composed of adipocytes (fat cells).
Its main function is energy storage in the form of fat.
Its secondary functions are the mechanical protection of bones and inner organs, and thermal insulation of the body.
Relatively recently it was found that adipose tissue has also significant endocrine, paracrine and autocrine activity, as it has the ability to produce hormones, such as leptin (that regulates energy intake, appetite, hunger, metabolism, and behavior), resistin, and others, as well as inflammatory agents, like TNF-α and interleukins.
Our body fat is defined as the total number of lipids in our body’s tissues.
It is produced through a set of processes in the human body, which transform, store, or eliminate ingredients received through foods.
The key in body fat storage is the hormone insulin.
Body fat is essential for the protection of the organs of the human body and for the storage of fat-soluble vitamins.
The percentage of body fat is recorded through a fat measurement. Together with carbohydrates, lipids spare proteins.
Food or body proteins degradation is not necessary for the production of energy.
Glycogen reserve is sufficient to cover our energy needs for twelve hours, but an individual that weights seventy kilos and has an average height, twelve kilos of fat (in the form of triglycerides) cover his/her energy needs for up to eight weeks.
Toxic Load – Toxicity
One of the main negative characteristics of the evolution of our species is that we managed to create an extremely toxic environment around us, in which we have to survive, but also continue to evolve.
Toxicity is the classification of a substance’s ability to harm an organism.
A toxic substance can enter our body in three ways: absorption through our digestive system, through breathing or through the skin.
Then, the toxic substance is stored, eliminated or transformed to another substance (biotransformation).
There are certain vital organs, which are particularly sensitive to toxic substances, such as the liver, the kidneys and our blood.
Toxicity may be acute (direct) or chronic (delayed), depending on the amount of the toxic substance and the time needed for an acute reaction to occur by our organism, i.e. damage to our main organs, coma, or even death.
Toxic load accumulation within the organism indicates its long-term exposure to toxic substances, and unfortunately there are many such bombarding us daily, as they are in products that we may be using, causing multiple hormonal disturbances and health problems.
Usual toxic substances are:
Bisphenol A (BPA) is found in many products, including canned food, plastics, and certain dental sealants, and it has a similar structure to estrogen.
Dioxins are very well known and they have been the focus of many studies worldwide. They are found in foods and they are accumulated in animals’ adipose tissue.
They have been associated to low sperm count and infertility.
Atrazine is usually used in pesticides, which can contaminate drinking water.
In animal studies, its use has been associated with tumors, delayed puberty and prostate inflammation, while a shocking finding is that it may convert a male frog into a female frog, according to the Environmental Working Group (EWG).
Phthalates, which are used in plastics to make the material more flexible, as well as in many other products, such as detergents, and raincoats, but also in personal care products, like soaps, shampoos and nail polish, can potentially affect the human reproductive system.
To reduce exposure to phthalates, you should avoid as much as you can plastic food containers and plastic wrap made of PVC.
The chemicals used as fire retardants, called polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE), are very persistent in the environment.
They may disrupt thyroid activity and they have been associated with health impacts, such as lower IQ.
Many of these substances have progressively been abolished, but due to their long lifetime, it is not known when they will be completely eliminated.
Lead (Pb, chemical symbol).
This is a thoroughly studied toxin, and it has been associated to brain lesions, lower IQ, loss of hearing and nervous system problems, according to the EWG. However, it has been also found that lead influences also hormones, especially in animals that it can lower sex hormones levels.
Perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs).
They are found in nonstick cookware and they are very robust chemical compounds, while some of them have been linked to lower sperm quality, lower birth weight, and thyroid disease, among others.
However, studies cannot demonstrate yet that perfluorinated chemicals (PFC) cause these problems, and thus further studies are required to better determine their effects on the human body.
Mercury, Hg chemical symbol)
It is known that this metal intervenes in the development of the fetus’ brain.
It may be also linked to a hormone that regulates ovulation in women, and it can damage pancreatic cells that produce the hormone insulin.
The Environmental Working Group recommends consuming wild salmon and trout to reduce mercury exposure, while for women who are pregnant or consider becoming pregnant, it is recommended not to consume more than 2 main meals a week with fish, such as canned tuna.
Arsenic is found in the environment in its natural state, as well as in certain pesticides, and thus it may find its way into food and drinking water.
One form of arsenic, inorganic arsenic, is a well known carcinogenic material, while chronic exposure to low levels has been associated with increased risk for bladder, lung and skin cancer.
This element may also intervene with the way our body processes sugars and carbohydrates.
In particular, the US Food and Drug Association (FDA) recently announced that the levels of arsenic in rice do not seem to pose a health risk in the short term, but the Association continues investigating the possible long-term consequences.
Exposure in these chemical substances of pesticides has been associated with effects on brain development, behavior, and fertility, while it may affect testosterone levels.
These chemical substances, which are used as solvents in paints and cleaning products, have been associated with lower sperm count among professionals dealing with colors.
Exposure in these chemical substances has also been linked to bronchial asthma and various allergies in children.
When our body is burdened with excess load of toxins it shows one or more symptoms, such as age spots, bad breath, tongue with white coating, digestive problems (flatulence – bloating, poor digestion, constipation, increase of Candida), dull skin and hair, weight gain, headaches, irritability, tired eyes, fatigue, slow metabolism, acne, eczema, allergies (note: age spots on hands are due to liver overload) and many others.
This is a process of restoring the balance of all cells in our body, so that to allow effective elimination of toxins, but also to absorb and utilize nutrients from larger to smaller organs, such as the liver, the kidneys, the mucous membranes and the cells.
Krebs Cycle – Citric-acid cycle
Citric acid cycle or Krebs cycle, in honor of the scientist who discovered it, is the final stage of degradation of carbohydrates, fats and amino acids ingested with food.
It is an important part of aerobic respiration. In most cells, citric acid cycle performs the 2/3 of all oxidation of carbon compounds.
Citric acid cycle was discovered after years of efforts, to understand the biological pathways of aerobic respiration, in 1937.
The enzymes required for citric acid cycle are located within mitochondria.
The first of these enzymes catalyzes the reaction that connects the acetyl group of acetyl-CoA with one molecule of oxaloacetic acid to form citric acid.
Citric acid oxidizes progressively and oxidization energy is used to produce high- energy molecules.
The final molecules of the cycle are two molecules of carbon dioxide and oxalic (citric acid), which is used again in a new cycle.
In many steps, electrons are transferred from the substrate to other molecules, such as NADH and FADH2.
Following this, these two molecules transfer high-energy electros to the electron transport chain, so that to carry out the oxidative phosphorylation.
Finally, these electrons react with oxygen and produce water.
Citric acid cycle also functions as a starting point for other biosynthesis reactions, because it produces significant intermediates, such as oxalic and alpha-ketoglutarate acid.
These compounds are produced by catabolism, transferred from mitochondria into the cytoplasm, participating in reactions as precursors for the synthesis of various molecules, such as amino acids for example.
Thyroid gland problems
Thyroid gland pathology includes the following:
1) Thyroid gland development abnormalities,
2) Disorders causing hyperthyroidism,
3) Disorders causing hypothyroidism,
5) Thyroid cancer.
Swelling is a significant clinical finding of the thyroid; however it is not always present in case of thyroid disorder.
Normally, it is not possible to palpate the gland, but significant bulges can be detected, since the gland follows the movement of swallowing, moving “up and down” along with the thyroid cartilage.
Each swelling is clinically called goiter. The most commonly occurring thyroid disorders are Hypothyroidism and Hyperthyroidism.
In the first case, hypofunctioning of the thyroid gland is observed, with reduced hormone secretion; in the second case, overactivity is observed, with hypersecretion of thyroid hormones.
Acne is a pathological condition, leading to inflammatory clogged sebaceous glands, which result in the appearance of comedones and blackheads.
Acne has multiple causes, both nutritional and hormonal.
Acne vulgaris is more common during puberty. Acne is aggravated by stress.
Eczema is a pathological skin condition, which is usually caused by immune system’s overactivity, leading to skin tissues inflammation.
Atopic eczema is a hereditary pathological condition and it may be related to allergies.
Low levels of Omega-3 and Omega-6 essential fatty acids have been associated with eczema many times.
Psoriasis is a non-infectious pathological skin condition, which is usually hereditary, but it may not occur until it is triggered by a certain factor, such as stress, candidiasis (infection by the Candida fungus), intestinal toxemia (caused by toxins), beta blockers, aspirin and some herbs.
Psoriasis is an Autoimmune Disorder and therefore patients with psoriasis usually also have other autoimmune and chronic inflammatory diseases, such as arthritis, inflammatory bowel diseases, type 1 diabetes, multiple sclerosis, etc.
Overproduction of skin cells and redness are common characteristics of psoriasis.
It may also affect the health of the nails.
Developmental Disorders – P.D.D.
The diagnostic category pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) refers to a group of five disorders characterized by delays in the development of multiple basic functions, including socialization and communication. They are the following:
Pervasive Developmental Disorder,
Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS), which includes Atypical Autism and is the most common;
Autism (the best-known category);
Rett syndrome; and
Childhood Disintegrative Disorder (CDD).
Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)
A group of disorders of the previous Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PDD) category, influencing the way an individual communicates and relates with other people around him/her.
Autism or Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is specified as a developmental disorder that appears in childhood.
Autism affects negatively social, cognitive, language and communication skills of a person.
Children falling within ASD differ both in terms of the level of their disorder and in terms of the specific behavioral symptoms.
Fertility disorders – Infertility
“Infertility” is defined as the inability of a couple to achieve conception and have a child, after at least one year of regular sexual intercourse without contraceptive protection.
It should not be confused with “sterility”, which is the ultimate biological childbearing inability (for example, a woman who has undergone total uterus and ovaries removal surgery is obviously unable to have children).
According to the International Society for the Study of the Aging Male (ISSAM), Andropause is defined as the biochemical syndrome, which is related to aging in men, and it is characterized by blood androgen level reduction, with or without reduction of gonads’ sensitivity to androgens’ action.
This condition may affect significantly the quality of life, and it may also impair the function of many organs.
Hormonal Disorders – Hormone Imbalance
Hormonal disorders are due to the over- or underproduction of hormones, or due to an inability of the target-organ to respond to them.
Over- or underproduction of certain hormones (estrogens, androgens, thyroid hormones, cortisol, etc.) can affect mood, and cause apparent, intense or not intense, symptoms.
It is often a normal fluctuation (e.g. cycle in women), but sometimes it relates to conditions requiring medical attention (e.g. overproduction of thyroid hormones, cortisol, etc).
Low libido – Lack of libido
Millions of women and men worldwide are facing the problem of lack of interest in sex.
According to studies, approximately 43% of women suffers from low libido.
It is a fact that all women may face this problem at any point in their life and, as compared to men, the problem is more common among women.
Many factors are responsible for this condition, including stress, pregnancy, poor nutrition, lactation, alcohol, menopause, lack of exercise, depression, some medications and, of course, hormonal imbalance in the organism.
The term allergy refers to a pathological condition, during which the organism reacts to harmless environmental substances called allergens.
In particular, an allergy is type I hypersensitivity reaction, in which the main actors are certain blood cells (basophils and mast cells) and a specific antibody type (immunoglobulin E).
The respiratory system is a system of organs that are useful for ambient air intake from the environment, its inflow in the lungs, receiving the oxygen and delivering carbon dioxide.
All this process, which supplies the body with oxygen that is necessary for living, is breathing.
Diseases caused by microorganisms, especially those that release toxins or invade body tissues.
Infectious diseases with global impact (e.g. malaria, tuberculosis, hepatitis viruses, and diarrheal diseases) cause more disabilities and deaths than any other cause.
An infection differs from body colonization by microorganisms in that during colonization microbes inhabit harmlessly the body, or even provide useful functions (e.g. gut bacteria that produce vitamin K).
On the other hand, infectious diseases typically cause damage.
Osteoporosis is a chronic bone metabolism disorder, in which a gradual reduction of their density and quality is observed, resulting in more fragile and thin bones over time.
This creates an increased risk of bone fracture, as their hardness and elasticity are reduced.
In the past 30 years, research on Osteoporosis, starting from scratch, made significant advancements, which was triggered by the Osteoporosis problems of long-term astronauts – cosmonauts as well as the constant aging of the population.
Sleep disorders include any difficulty related to sleep.
In particular, difficulty to sleep, sleeping at inappropriate times, hypersomnia, or abnormal behavior during sleep.
In everyday life, the term depression means a state of sorrow and melancholy.
This is usually temporary and it is probably due to a relatively trivial and inconsequential.
Depression differs from Clinical Depression, which is characterized by symptoms lasting for more than two weeks, and they are so severe that they intervene in daily living of an individual.
In Psychiatry, the term depression may have this meaning too, but it usually refers to a mental disorder, especially when it is already at a high degree of severity to have this diagnosis.
Depression is the fourth stage of the Kübler-Ross model on the acceptance of death.
It is characterized by chronic fatigue, which is not alleviated with rest and reduced physical, mental and social functioning.
It affects women and men of all ages and races.
It is often related to reduced concentration, anger, sleep disorders, recurrent sore throat, low temperatures, swollen glands, and bone or muscle pain.
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus – S.L.E.
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) is a systematic, inflammatory disorder of the immune system that may even lead to death.
Most people refer to the form of the disease when using the term “Lupus”.
The symptoms of SLE may be mild or severe.
Although the onset of SLE is usually observed in patients between the ages of 15 and 45 years old, it may also occur during childhood, or at older ages.
Migraine is a special type of headache that may appear with symptoms, such as nausea, vomiting or photosensitivity.
In many people, a throbbing pain on one side of the head is evident.
Some people suffering from migraines have warning symptoms, called “aura” before the onset of the actual headache.
The aura is a group of symptoms, which include vision disorders and are a warning sign for the migraine that follows.
Ulcerative colitis is a chronic disease, characterized by inflammation and ulceration of the colon mucosa.
The symptoms of a patient with ulcerative colitis are mainly diarrheal stools with blood or mucus, and abdominal pain.
Ulcerative colitis only affects the large intestine (colon).
Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) is a chronic, symmetric, polyarticular, as well as systematic Autoimmune inflammatory disease, which mainly affects the small joints synovium.
It may cause joints deformation and chronic disability, while it is also possible to be accompanied by extra-articular manifestations (rheumatoid nodules, vasculitis) as a result of various tissues and organs’ involvement.
It is a chronic, typically lifelong disease, with particularly varying course.
The disease has worldwide distribution, it is the most common chronic inflammatory arthropathy, and it affects 1% of the adult population.
It can affect people of any age, but its incidence increases with age.
It is at least twice more common among women as compared to men.
It is distinguished in two categories: adult rheumatoid arthritis and juvenile rheumatoid arthritis.
The clinical presentation and course for patients in these two categories differ significantly.
Osteoarthritis (OA) also known as degenerative arthritis or degenerative joint disease is a group of mechanical abnormalities involving degradation of joints, including articular cartilage and subchondral bone.
Symptoms may include joint pain, tenderness, stiffness, locking, and sometimes an effusion in the joint area.
A variety of causes, hereditary, developmental, metabolic, and mechanical, may initiate the processes leading to loss of cartilage.
When bone surfaces become less well protected by cartilage, bones may be exposed and damaged.
As a result of decreased movement secondary to pain, regional muscles may atrophy, and ligaments may become more lax.
Psoriatic arthritis is a chronic inflammatory disease, which mainly affects the joints of the upper and lower limbs, the spinal cord, as well as the skin.
In particular, it may cause edema and lead to the development of scaly plaques on the skin, which look slightly like eczema, except that they may be much more extended.
Psoriatic arthritis belongs to the group of spondyloarthropathies.
It can be distinguished from the other forms of inflammatory arthritis mainly due to the skin disorder it causes.
It manifests with acute episodes, with intermediate periods of recession of varying duration.
Other regions that may be affected by psoriatic arthritis are the entheses i.e. the regions where the tendons are attached to the joint’s bones, something that may explain heel pain.
Psoriatic arthritis is an Autoimmune Disease, which usually occurs as an extension of psoriasis.
Psoriasis is usually a papulosquamous disorder, which affects 2% of the population and is characterized by well-delimited red scaly patches.
It affects equally men and women. It may occur on the knees, hands, feet, scalp, and other areas of the body.
The cause of the disorder is not clear, but genetic predisposition has been implicated, as well as immunologic and environmental factors.
The disease may present during childhood or in the beginning of adulthood (early onset of psoriasis), or it may occur after the age of 40 (late onset).
Ankylosing spondylarthritis or ankylosing spondylitis is a chronic disease of the spinal cord.
It belongs to the group of Autoimmune Disorders, similarly to rheumatoid arthritis.
It affects the joints, the anterior longitudinal ligaments of the spine, and the sacroiliac joints.
It is also known as or Bechterew’s disease or Bechterew’s syndrome or Marie-Strumpell disease.
In rare cases it affects the joints of the upper and lower limbs, or parenchymatous organs (spleen, kidneys, etc).
Histopathology: They are focal inflammatory lesions of the joints and intervertebral disc’s cartilage that is devoid of blood vessels.