Metabolic Syndrome

Μεταβολικό Σύνδρομο-Metabolic Syndrome

Metabolic Syndrome

The Metabolic Syndrome is a potentially dangerous organic syndrome particularly associated with modern life. It is characterized by a combination of cardiovascular risk factors of metabolic etiology, the most important of which are hypertension, abdominal obesity, dyslipidemia and blood sugar disorders.

The proportion of people who suffer from, it is increasing over the years, especially in the Western world. Modern unhealthy lifestyle, malnutrition, stressful environments, and increased body weight are factors that can significantly influence the development and progression of metabolic syndrome. That is why this particular condition is characterized as a scourge of modern times.

Causal treatment of Metabolic Syndrome

  • Restoration of cellular function
  • Strictly personalized treatments
  • No taking of medicines
  • Removal of underlying diseases
  • Treatments acting alone or in combination, without side effects


Definition of Metabolic Syndrome

Since the early 20th century, a number of researchers have observed that certain metabolic disorders tend to coexist in the same individual. Over the years, these observations were multiplied and organized, describing the form of a syndrome that took a number of names (X Syndrome, Multiple Metabolic Syndrome, etc.), before finally in 1998 the World Health Organization (WHO) established the first clear criteria for its diagnosis. It should be noted that the syndrome definition is not static but has been revised and updated over time. The official diagnosis of Metabolic Syndrome is made when a person has three or more of the criteria listed in the table below.


Criteria Diagnostic values
Abdominal Obesity (Waist circumference) Men > 102cm

Women > 88cm

Triglycerides ≥ 150mg/dL
HDL-cholesterol Men < 40mg/dL

Women < 50mg/dL

Blood pressure or known hypertension Systolic ≥ 130mmHg

Diastolic ≥ 85mmHg

Fasting glucose ≥ 100mg/dL


Table 1: Clinical Diagnostic Criteria for Metabolic Syndrome according to the World Health Organization (WHO), the American Heart Association (AHA), and the Adult Therapy Committee of the National American Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP).


Symptoms of Metabolic Syndrome

The nature of the metabolic syndrome as a set of pathological conditions that occur simultaneously can make it difficult for the patient to recognize it. However, an obvious symptom is the increase in waist circumference. At the same time, if blood glucose levels are higher than normal, symptoms such as polydipsia, polyuria, nausea and confusion may occur. Other symptoms that may occur and are associated with increased blood pressure are headache, dizziness, blurred vision, nose bleeding and difficulty breathing. If you have noticed some of these symptoms systematically, you should consult a specialist doctor who can diagnose if Metabolic Syndrome is present.


What Causes Metabolic Syndrome?

The US Commission on Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) considers abdominal obesity as a cause of the syndrome. In particular, abdominal adipocytes become particularly active hormonically by the effect of macrophages. This effect is indicative of the interaction of abdominal obesity and inflammation. Increased levels of lipokines (proteins secreted by adipose tissue, such as leptin) in combination with increased free fatty acids (derived from diet) contribute to a number of systemic effects (fatty liver infiltration, increased insulin resistance), which are directly related to Metabolic Syndrome.

Insulin resistance plays an important role in the development of the metabolic syndrome, according to the World Health Organization and the World Diabetes Organization. This pathological condition results in increased insulin secretion in order to regulate blood sugar. It also promotes the development of hypertension, obesity and dyslipidemia as well as type II diabetes.

Scientific research cites stress as a cause of metabolic syndrome. Severe chronic stress causes hypercortisolemia and increased growth hormone secretion, events leading to insulin resistance and increased abdominal obesity. Indeed, a study by the University of San Francisco in women with high levels of stress shows that these women had higher waist circumference, greater insulin resistance, and a higher abdominal fat rate than the control group.

In recent years, special emphasis has been placed on the relationship between metabolic syndrome and intestinal microbiome. Changes in the composition of the intestinal microbiome (primarily due to the intake of excessive amounts of food and poor nutrition) appear to promote the development of Metabolic Syndrome, as they lead to the excessive development of short chain free fatty acids and lipopolysaccharides in the intestine. These molecules cross the intestinal barrier and enter the blood circulation, thereby contributing to the development of metabolic disorders and insulin resistance.


What is the Clinical Significance of the Metabolic Syndrome?

Based on the data reported so far, it is clear that a situation characterized by a combination of multiple risk factors is itself a stronger risk factor than the individual situations. A number of studies have documented that the existence of the Metabolic Syndrome is strongly predisposed to the development of type II diabetes (the risk is five times higher compared to people without the syndrome) as well as cardiovascular disease (double the risk).

There are also literature reports that the Metabolic Syndrome is associated with a variety of diseases and pathological conditions such as fatty liver infiltration, chronic kidney disease, and malignancies (colon and pancreas).


Therapeutic Approach to Metabolic Syndrome

The clinical significance of the Metabolic Syndrome makes it clear that when someone is diagnosed with Metabolic Syndrome, they must take immediate action to prevent all the pathological conditions associated with it. At this point it should be noted that the diagnosis of the Metabolic Syndrome is often difficult for physicians as it requires a combination of data sets and is unfortunately often overlooked. Our specialist doctors can determine if you have Metabolic Syndrome and answer all your questions about it.

At the core of the therapeutic approach is the adoption of a healthier lifestyle with the primary goal of losing weight (a realistic goal is to lose 7-10% of body weight over a period of 6-12 months), increase physical activity (at least 30 minutes of moderate-intensity exercise per day) and adherence to general dietary guidelines (reduced intake of saturated fat, trans fatty acids, carbohydrates and increased intake of vegetable and fiber rich foods).


Micronutrient Therapeutic Protocols

Biochemical aberration at the cellular level and subsequently at the level of function of an organism can be detected through specialized biochemical or metabolic tests. The results of the tests provide a wealth of evidence that, in combination with the patient’s clinical picture, define the treatment protocol to follow.

The micronutrient protocols are based on medical algorithms, are in accordance with American standards and strictly determine the dosage, duration, amount and combination of ingredients per person.

Along with the therapeutic approach through micronutrients, restoration to optimal levels of hormonal function is also important, as potential hormonal imbalances significantly affect biochemical function and cellular homeostasis.

The therapeutic approach, depending on the findings and clinical relevance, can take from 6 to 18 months to completely restore the patient’s clinical image.



Dr. Nicoletta Koini, M.D.

Practitioner, Preventive, Anti-Aging and Regenerative Medicine
Diploma and Board Certified in Anti-aging, Preventive, Functional and Regenerative Medicine from A4M (American Academy of Antiaging Medicine).




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