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Precision Medicine and Full DNA Test

The main goal of Precision Medicine is to detect the underlying causes of pathological conditions and diseases, through cellular and genetic analyses and then, based on the diagnostic findings, to develop strictly individualized treatment protocols. Thus, the therapeutic benefit of the patients is maximized and at the same time the expenses are reduced.

In the age of Precision Medicine, in addition to the usual biochemical tests performed at the first level of investigation of a clinical condition, it is now possible to enrich the diagnosis with cellular and genetic findings.

The role of Full DNA Test in the detection of Predisposition and the Mechanisms of development of various pathological conditions and Diseases

Genetic tests are very accurate diagnostic tests in terms of genetic determination, which help to detect the predisposition of individuals to manifest pathological conditions and diseases, as well as to identify the mechanisms of expression of a disease, when it has already occurred.

This is achieved through the analysis of genetic variants that have been scientifically proven to be associated with a disease. In this way, the risk of developing Diseases is assessed and the development and pathophysiology of a Disease is understood, if it has already manifested. The results of the Gene Analyzes allow the elaboration of strictly individualized therapeutic treatments.

Genetic Tests in Clinical practice

It all started when the structure of DNA was discovered by Franklin, James D. Watson and Francis Crick. James D. Watson and Francis Crick shared the Nobel Prize with Maurice Wilkins in 1962 for their contribution to the study of the structure of DNA.

It is one of the greatest discoveries of the 20th century, because by clarifying the structure of DNA, scientists have been able to understand the genetics of life and the inheritance of certain characteristics and diseases.

Physicians are now fully aware of the fundamental principles of genetic testing and how to integrate research tools into their own clinical quiver, and medical specialties are increasingly integrating genetic testing into their medical practice.

 

Diseases whose predisposition is assessed through Genetic Tests

The genetic basis of several diseases has been clarified, through advanced molecular and genetic technology, and the risk of developing the following can be assessed, depending on the genetic test that the patient chooses to perform:

    • Men’s and Women’s health. Through the analysis of 648 genes, the predisposition of men for the onset of 11 categories of diseases and 695 genes respectively, the predisposition of women for the manifestation of 12 categories of diseases is identified.
    • The predisposition to allergies is determined through the analysis of more than 225 genes and over 400 genetic markers.
    • 1449 genes and 4594 genetic variants are analyzed that demonstrate an individual’s sensitivity to the development of Autism Spectrum Disorders.
    • More than 540 genes and more than 1150 markers are evaluated that make the predisposition for the development of Autoimmune Diseases
    • 173 genes are being investigated regarding the predisposition of women to develop Breast Cancer.
    • Thanks to the evaluation of 734 genes, the predisposition to the occurrence of Cardiovascular Diseases is detected.
    • Through the analysis of 373 genes, on the one hand, the risk of developing diabetes and on the other hand, the mechanisms that contributed to its development are detected.
    • It is possible to predict disorders related to the function of the Endocrine System, with the help of the analysis of 1015 genes.
    • 110 genes are being investigated, through which the possibility of fertility-related problems is determined.
    • The development of gastrointestinal disorders can be predicted by evaluating more than 390 genes and over 750 genetic markers.
    • More than 740 genes and more than 1460 genetic markers are being evaluated that contribute to the detection of the predisposition for the manifestation of Gynecological Diseases.
    • Through the evaluation of 325 genes, the degree of Inflammation in the body is understood.
    • Through the analysis of 507 genes, the degree of susceptibility of individuals to develop Neurodegenerative Diseases can be determined.
    • Various forms of Rheumatic Diseases are evaluated, through the analysis of more than 250 genes.
    • Pediatrics and genetic diseases. 887 genes are analyzed, which help to detect the predisposition of children to develop various diseases.
    • More than 90 genes and more than 200 markers are evaluated, through which the predisposition to the development of Prostate Cancer is identified.
    • 849 genes are analyzed, through which the genetic needs of each individual for Vitamins, Minerals and Antioxidants are clearly identified.

Personalized Therapies

Thanks to the composition of this unique set of genetic information for each of us, the possibility of developing a disease before its clinical manifestation or its mechanism can be determined, when symptoms have already been expressed. The results of genetic analysis influence or shape treatment options and put into practice a strictly personalized treatment approach, based on the different needs of each individual.

 

Dr. Nikoleta Koini, M.D.

Doctor of Functional, Preventive, Anti-ageing and Restorative Medicine.
Diplomate and Board Certified in Anti-aging, Preventive, Functional and Regenerative Medicine from A4M (American Academy in Antiaging Medicine).

 

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References:

  1. Lu YF, Goldstein DB, Angrist M, Cavalleri G (July 2014). “Personalized medicine and human genetic diversity”. Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine (Essay). 4 (9): a008581. doi:10.1101/cshperspect.a008581. PMC 4143101. PMID 25059740.
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  3. Ogino, Shuji; Fuchs, Charles S; Giovannucci, Edward (July 2012). “How many molecular subtypes? Implications of the unique tumor principle in personalized medicine”. Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics. 12 (6): 621–628. doi:10.1586/erm.12.46. PMC 3492839. PMID 22845482.
  4. Ray A. “Artificial Intelligence and Blockchain for Precision Medicine”. Inner Light Publishers. Retrieved 21 May 2018.
  5. Rutherford, Adam (19 July 2015). “Beware the pseudo gene genies”. The Guardian.
  6. Alberts B, Johnson A, Lewis J, Raff M, Roberts K, Walter P (2014). Molecular Biology of the Cell (6th ed.). Garland. p. Chapter 4: DNA, Chromosomes and Genomes. ISBN 978-0-8153-4432-2. Archived from the original on 14 July 2014.
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  8. Hui L, Bianchi DW (February 2013). “Recent advances in the prenatal interrogation of the human fetal genome”. Trends in Genetics. 29 (2): 84–91. doi:10.1016/j.tig.2012.10.013. PMC 4378900. PMID 23158400.
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